Callisto

### Callisto /Io Mean Surface Temperatures COMPARISON: (Tcallisto /Tio)

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Callisto:

Calisto’s (Jupiter’s satellite)

Surface temp.

min mean max K[6]

80±5 134±11 165±5

Calisto’s albedo: acalisto = 0,22

Calisto has a heavy cratered surface

Calisto’s surface consists of water ice crust (by estimation), so

Cp.calisto = 1cal/gr*oC

1/R² = 1/5,2044² = 0,0369 times lesser is the solar irradiation on Jupiter than that on Earth, the same on its satellite Calisto

Calisto’s orbital period is 16,689.0184 days Calisto’s sidereal rotation period is synchronous

N = 1/16,689 rotation /day

Tsat.mean.calisto = 134 K ± 11

"The surface of Callisto is the oldest and most heavily cratered in the Solar System. Its surface is completely covered with impact craters."

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Io:

Io’s (Jupiter’s satellite)

Surface temp.

min mean max Surface

90 K 110 K 130 K[10]

Io’s albedo: aio = 0,63

Io is a rocky planet without atmosphere heavy cratered,

Most of Io's surface is composed of sulfur and sulfur dioxide frost.

Cp.sulfur = 0,17 cal/gr.oC, Cp.sulfur.dioxide = 0,12 cal/gr.oC

cp.io = 0,17 cal/gr.oC *0,5 + 0,12 cal/gr.oC *0,5 =

cp.io = 0,145 cal/gr.oC

1/R² = 1/5,2044² = 0,0369 times lesser is the solar irradiation on Jupiter than that on Earth, the same on its satellite Io.

Io’s orbital period is 1,799 days. Io’s sidereal rotation period is synchronous.

N = 1/1,799 rotations/per day

Tsat.mean.io = 110 K (- 163 oC)

"With over 400 active volcanoes, Io is the most geologically active object in the Solar System."

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Let's apply the Planet Surface Rotational Warming Phenomenon to the (Callisto /Io) Mean Surface Temperatures COMPARISON issue:

(Tcallisto /Tio) = 134K /110K

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The Solar Irradiated Planet Surface Rotational Warming Phenomenon states:

Planets' (without atmosphere, or with a thin atmosphere) the mean surface temperatures RELATE (everything else equals) as their (N*cp) products' SIXTEENTH ROOT.

( N*cp ) ^1/16

or

[ (N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ ] ¹∕ ⁴

Where

N - rotations/day, is the planet's axial spin .

cp - cal/gr*oC, is the planet's average surface specific heat.

This discovery has explained the origin of the formerly observed the planets' average surface temperatures comparison discrepancies.

Earth is warmer than Moon because Earth rotates faster than Moon and because Earth’s surface is covered with water.

What we do in our research is to compare the satellite measured planetary temperatures.

The Solar Irradiated Planet Surface Rotational Warming Phenomenon can be expressed now also QUANTITATIVELY .

And it happens so to be a very POWERFUL the planet surface warming factor.

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Comparison Coefficient:

[ (1-a) (N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴

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Callisto:

[ (1-a) (N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴

{ (1-0,22) [(1/16,689)*1)]¹∕ ⁴ }¹∕ ⁴ =

[ (0,78) (0,05992)¹∕ ⁴]¹∕ ⁴ =

[ (0,78) (0,4948)]¹∕ ⁴ =

(0,3859)¹∕ ⁴  =

= 0,78817

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Io:

[ (1-a) (N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ ]¹∕ ⁴

{ (1-0,63) [(1/1,799)*0,145)]¹∕ ⁴ }¹∕ ⁴ =

[ (0,37) (0,08060)¹∕ ⁴]¹∕ ⁴ =

[ (0,37) (0,53282)]¹∕ ⁴ =

(0,19715)¹∕ ⁴ =

= 0,66634

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0,78817 /0,66634 = 1,18283

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134K /110 K = 1, 21818

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1,21818 / 1,18283 = 1,0299

or 2,99% difference.