It is a situation that happens once in a lifetime in science. Although the evidences existed, were measured and remained isolated information so far.
It was not obvious one could combine the evidences in order to calculate the planet’s surface mean temperature.
A planet without-atmosphere effective temperature equation
Te = [ (1-a) S / 4 σ ]¹∕ ⁴
is incomplete because it is based only on two parameters:
1. On the average solar flux S W/m² on the top of a planet’s atmosphere and
2. The planet’s average albedo a.
We use more major parameters for the planet's mean surface temperature equation.
Planet is a celestial body with more major features when calculating planet mean surface temperature to consider. The planet without-atmosphere mean surface temperature calculating formula has to include all the planet’s basic properties and all the characteristic parameters.
3. The planet's axial spin N rotations/day.
4. The thermal property of the surface (the specific heat cp).
5. The planet's surface solar irradiation accepting factor Φ ( the spherical surface’s primer solar irradiation absorbing property ).
Altogether these parameters are combined in the Planet's Without-Atmosphere Surface Mean Temperature Equation:
A Planet Without-Atmosphere Mean SurfaceTemperature Equation produces very reasonable results:
Tmean.earth = 287,74 K,
calculated with the Equation, which is identical with the
Tsat.mean.earth = 288 K,
measured by satellites.
Tmean.moon = 223,35 K,
calculated with the Equation, which is almost the same with the
Tsat.mean.moon = 220 K,
measured by satellites.
A Planet Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature Equation gives us a planet surface mean temperature values very close to the satellite measured planet mean surface temperatures.
It is a Stefan-Boltzmann Law Triumph! And it is a Milankovitch Cycle coming back! And as for NASA, all these new discoveries were possible only due to NASA satellite planet temperatures precise measurements!
Observations resulting in Equation- the perfect fitting !
the planets’ measured temperatures,
the planets’ surface specific heat cp,
the planets’ sidereal rotation period,
the distance from the sun,
the measured by space-crafts planets’ albedo,
the planets’ smooth or heavy cratered surface.
The discovery of the “The faster a planet rotates (n2>n1) the higher is the planet’s average temperature:
because Tmin grows faster”.
The understanding that a planet’s surface does not behave as a blackbody surface and it does not emit as a blackbody.
The understanding that:
(1 - Φ + Φ*a)S - is the reflected fraction of the incident on the planet solar flux
Φ(1 - a)S - is the NOT EMITTED fraction of the incident on the planet solar flux
All these observations together led to the discovery of the Rotating Planet Spherical Surface Solar Irradiation iNTERACTING-Emitting Universal Law:
=Jemit=σΤmean⁴/(β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ (W/m²)
And only then, solving for Tmean we obtain the Planet Mean Surface Temperature Equation: