Callisto: Imaged in 2001 by NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

### 8. Callisto’s (Jupiter’s satellite) Mean Surface Temperature Calculation

Tmean.callisto

So = 1.362 W/m² (So is the Solar constant)

Callisto’s albedo: acalisto = 0,22

Callisto has a heavy cratered surface (golf ball surface) and that makes the difference with Europa, and Europa’s albedo aeuropa = 0,63.

Callisto is an ice-crust planet (rocky) without atmosphere, but Callisto has a heavy cratered surface (golf ball surface) so Callisto’s surface irradiation accepting factor Φcallisto = 1

Callisto’s surface consists of water ice crust (by estimation), so

Cp.callisto = 1cal/gr*oC

1/R² = 1/5,2044² = 0,0369 times lesser is the solar irradiation on Jupiter than that on Earth, the same on its satellite Callisto

Callisto’s orbital period is 16,689.0184 days

Callisto’s sidereal rotation period is synchronous

N = 1/16,689 rotation /day

β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – it is the Planet Surface Solar Irradiation INTERACTING-Emitting Universal Law constant

σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, a Stefan-Boltzmann constant

Callisto’s mean surface temperature equation Tmean.calisto is:

Tmean.callisto = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴ =

Τmean.callisto = { 1*(1-0,22)1.362W/m² *0.0369*[150*(1/16,689)*1]¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ }¹∕ ⁴ =

Tmean.callisto = 131,52 K

Tsat.mean.callisto = 134 K ± 11

Callisto is an ice crust planet, and we know for sure that ice is not a poor emitter, ε = 0,90

(1/0,90)¹∕ ⁴ = 1,027 So we would have:

Te.callisto = 131,52 K * 1,027 = 135,071 K.

Jupiter: Near-true colour view in 2019[a]

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https://www.cristos-vournas.com

The faster a planet rotates (n2>n1) the higher is the planet’s average (mean) temperature T↑mean:

Tmin→ T↑mean ← Tmax

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