Dwarf planet Ceres - Image Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / UCLA / MPS / DLR / IDA / Justin Cowart Date 21 October 2015, 23:23 Source Ceres - RC3 - Haulani Crater Author Justin Cowart

### Ceres’ (Dwarf planet) Without-Atmosphere Mean Surface Temperature calculation Tmean =237,4 K

Tmean.ceres

So = 1.362 W/m² (So is the Solar constant)

Ceres’ albedo: a.ceres = 0,090±0,0033 (V-band) Geometric

R = 2,77 AU semi-major axis (distance from sun in astronomical units)

1/R² = 1/2,77² = 1/7,673 = 0,13033

Ceres’ sidereal rotation period is 9,074 h

Ceres does N = 24/9,074 = 2,645 rotations per day

Ceres’ surface irradiation accepting factor Φceres = 1

Ceres' surface is water ice and hydrated minerals, such as carbonates and clay. Ceres can be considered as water ice surface planet.

Cp = 1 cal/gr*oC

β = 150 days*gr*oC/rotation*cal – it is the Planet Surface Solar Irradiation INTERACTING-Emitting Universal Law constant

σ = 5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴, a Stefan-Boltzmann constant

Ceres' Without-Atmosphere mean surface temperature equation  Tmean.ceres is

Tmean.ceres = [ Φ (1-a) So (1/R²) (β*N*cp)¹∕ ⁴ /4σ ]¹∕ ⁴

Τmean.ceres = { 1*(1-0,09)*1.362 W/m² *0.13033*[150 *2,645*1]¹∕ ⁴ /4*5,67*10⁻⁸ W/m²K⁴ }¹∕ ⁴ =

= (3.176.345.599,84)¹∕ ⁴ = 237,4 K

Tmean.ceres = 237,4 K

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