The accepted research on Climate Global Warming all it leads to is a confussing cloud of inconsistencies, of discrepancies, and of uncertainties...

The research always comes to the dead end.

It is time to get back, and to start anew from the science's the very basic beginnings...

The S-B emission law cannot be applied neither to the planet solar lit side, nor to the planet darkside.

The Stefan-Boltzmann emission law is about the blackbody emission intensity of the hot bodies.

Hot bodies are the previously warmed bodies, or bodies having their own inner sourses of thermal energy.

Planets and moons surfaces' are very much insulated from the primordial heat the inner cores possesed.

Thus, planets and moons surfaces' temperatures do not rely on the inner sources of thermal energy.

Planets or moons are used to be confused with the hot bodies in the S-B emission sense, and it lead to the mistaken assertion:

Nothing, other than the absorbed radiation is what warms the matter to some (local) temperature, which, along with the matter properties, determines the Planck spectrum and S-B flux of the outgoing thermal radiation.”

A New, a CORRECT ASSERTION should be made:

"When incident on planets and moons solar flux (the solar EM energy), the solar flux interacts with surface's matter, because the EM energy is not HEAT ITSELF!"


Well, the planet’s dark side cools by emitting to space IR radiation. The dark side’s surface heat is the energy source of that IR EM energy emission.

There are not enough thermal energy (heat) at darkside terrestrial temperatures to support the S-B equation emission demands for the darkside respective surface temperatures.

Thus, the outgoing IR EM energy flux from the planet darkside is much-much weaker than what S-B equation predicts for those local temperatures.

On the planet’s solar lit side an interaction of the incident EM energy with surface’s matter occurs.

Part of the incident SW EM energy gets reflected (diffusely and specularly).

Another SW part gets instantly transformed into outgoing IR EM energy, and gets out to space.

When SW EM energy gets transformed into IR EM energy, the transformation is not a perfect process, there are always some inevitable energy losses, which dissipate as heat in the interacting surface’s matter and gets absorbed in the matter’s inner layers.

The S-B emission law cannot be applied neither to the planet solar lit side, nor to the planet darkside.




S-B never works in real material world. It only works for imaginary black bodies with perfect spectral emission curves. That is why the term

Surface Emissivity (ε) was invented.


the S-B equation

Jemit = σT⁴ W/m² had for different materials, and for variations of temperature to be added

with Surface Emissivity (ε), which is an empirical for every application value.

and, therefore, the S-B equation was re-written as:

Jemit = ε*σT⁴ W/m²

The universality of S-B constant (σ) has been transformed into:

(ε*σ) coupled term.


a planet doesn't emit IR according to S-B emission law.

What it is believed is that the Stefan-Boltzmann blackbody curve is merely a benchmark from which to launch a research project from,

then its a multi-faceted job to determine emissivity at every spectral line

and then do the research experiments that will determine how a particular frequency will result in an equilibrated temperature

and what that temperature is.




So when things go wrong, we see how we can learn. It's all an opportunity for improvement.

There is always valid: For planets and moons without-atmosphere, or with a thin atmosphere (Earth included)
“…the mean surface temperatures RELATE (everything else equals) as their (N*cp) products’ SIXTEENTH ROOT.”

From Wikipedia

” In the more general (and realistic) case, the spectral emissivity depends on wavelength. The total emissivity, as applicable to the Stefan–Boltzmann law, may be calculated as a weighted average of the spectral emissivity, with the blackbody emission spectrum serving as the weighting function. It follows that if the spectral emissivity depends on wavelength then the total emissivity depends on the temperature.”

"It follows that if the spectral emissivity depends on wavelength then the total emissivity depends on the temperature.”



“the GHE is based on the physics of the relatively great transparency of the atmosphere for shortwave radiation in comparison to a smaller transparency for longwave emission. Such that, the mean radiation balance at the earths surface is a positive value.”

How it happens? There is also the night. There is not any shortwave radiation at night.

Maybe it is meant that during day hours surface inevitably accumulates more energy, than solar flux provides?

Because less energy is emitted out of Earth’s system, than enters Earth’s system?

But doesn’t always a quasi equilibrium being achieved. The rise of Earth’s system energy emission, vs the rise of temperature?

In other words, the warmer the planet, the more energy the planet emits?

Doesn’t that eventually keep surface temperature at equilibrium levels?


Yes, and it really depends on the role of nonlinear feedbacks, as well as the direct forcings, as to where that equilibrium will be, and how long before it is reached.

When less energy is emitted to space, than it enters the Earth’s system, then the planet gets warmer.
It is the only way a planet gets warmer.

And when more energy is emitted to space, than it enters the Earth’s system, then the planet gets cooler.


It is all about electromagnetic energy balance; however, how that energy is captured and released depends on the various negative feedbacks to the orbital forcing’s changes.




Mars is a unique case, which can help to clear everything up.

Because, by a pure natural coincidence, the planet Mars' satellite measured mean surface temperature

Tmean.mars = 210K is the same as the planet Mars' the theoretical calculated effective temperature

Te.mars = 210K



By moving planet Mars from its orbit at 1,52 AU distance from the sun, by moving Mars to Moon's and Earth's orbit distance from the sun at 1 AU,

by moving Mars, to Earth's-Moon's orbit, by doing so, the above condition for Mars

Te.mars = Tmean.mars

is always right


Now = 254K

If Moon had Earth's Albedo, Te.moon would be

Te.moon =254K

If Mars had Earth's Albedo and Moon's (and Earth's 1AU) distance from the sun,

Te.mars1AU = Tmean.mars1AU =254K.

Mars' cp = o,18 cal /gr*oC

Earth's cp = 1 cal /gr*oC

Nearth = 1 rot /day

Nmars = 0,9028 rot /day


...the mean surface temperatures RELATE (everything else equals) as their (N*cp) products' SIXTEENTH ROOT.


Let's apply the Planet Surface Rotational Warming Phenomenon, to calculate Earth's without-atmosphere the average surface (Tmean) temperature /Tmean.mars1AU =

[ (Nearth* /(Nmars*cp.mars) ]1/16 /254K = [ (1*1) /(0,9028*0,18) ]1/16 = (1 /0,1625)1/16 =

= (6,15369)1/16 = 1,120266 = 254K * 1,120266 = 284,57K

or = ~ 284,57K


planet Earth's measured Tmean =288K

Thus, the planet Earth's Atmospheric Total GHE can be estimated (if there is any) as:

288K - 284,57K = ~ 3,43 C

If there is any...


Curious George

23.08.2021 17:39

Why don't you include Venus in the list of planets?

Christos Vournas

24.08.2021 07:49

George, please visit my site page
I have explained there why the faster rotating planet is on average warmer
You may write here, two or more comments together

Ron Clutz

25.07.2021 14:40

Christos, I am glad you appreciate my posts regarding your research. Third, and last one for awhile, is

Christos Vournas

25.07.2021 15:22

Ron, "The table above and graph below shows that Earth’s warming factor is correctly calculated despite ignoring any effect from its thin atmosphere." Thank you!!!

Ron Clutz

23.07.2021 21:01

Christos, I did a second post focusing on Moon and Earth

Christos Vournas

24.07.2021 06:14

Ron, yes, I visited your second post and I liked it very much. Ron, you have the rare ability... thank you very much! And please continue... Christos

Ron Clutz

21.07.2021 21:39

Christos, thank for this work and for linking the address at Climate Etc. I did a synopsis of your findings at my blog is:

Christos Vournas

22.07.2021 07:06

Ron, thank you for doing a synopsis of my findings at your blog.
We are capable now to theoretically calculate planet mean surface temperatures.
Thank you again,


07.07.2020 01:13

Sir, did you derive this formula, or is it from a book or article on planetary science?

Christos Vournas

07.07.2020 22:05

Thank you, Craig. Yes I derived this formula.

Ireneusz Palmowski

10.12.2019 18:32

Can anything be said about the effective surface temperature of Venus? What do you think about it?

Ireneusz Palmowski Palmowski

11.12.2019 08:16

I gave such an answer at

Christos Vournas

10.12.2019 19:38

Φ=1 for Venus' absorption budget. Jabs = (1-a)Sπr². A Planet Effective Temperature Complete Formula is for a planet-without-atmosphere. We apply it only on very thin atmosph Earth's and Titan's cases.

Ireneusz Palmowski

08.12.2019 14:41

Thank you. I showed your page on Dr. Roy Spencer's blog and WUWT. Greetings.

Christos Vournas

08.12.2019 12:54

The calculations of solar radiation reflection are based on the smooth spherical shape for Φ=0,47. For albedo are based on the surface features. Φ=1 is for gaseous - no surface to reflect planets.

Ireneusz Palmowski Palmowski

08.12.2019 09:45

"N rotations/day, is planet’s sidereal rotation period"
I ask for an explanation.
I understand that this is the most important point of your equation.

Christos Vournas

08.12.2019 12:45

Thank you Ireneuzs. N rotations/day is N rotations/24 hours. The faster - the higher is its average temperature. N and pc influence the way a solar irradiated blackbody surface interact with the S .

Christos Vournas

06.12.2019 20:25

Ireneusz, feel free to ask me anything. And thank you for asking.

Ireneusz Palmowski

08.12.2019 09:26

Thank you for your answer. Can you explain what the calculations of solar radiation reflection are based on? Yes for a layman.

Ireneusz Palmowski

06.12.2019 13:27

"The planet surface solar irradiation accepting factor Φ (the spherical surface’s primer geometrical quality). For Mercury, Moon, Earth and Mars without atmosphere Φ = 0,47."
Can you explain this?

Christos Vournas

06.12.2019 20:21

The solar irradiation reflection, when integrated over a planet sunlit hemisphere is 0,53 [ ( 1- a) S ].
The fraction left for hemisphere to absorb is Φ = 1 - 0,53 = 0,47, or Jabs = Φ (1 - a ) S